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Naman also noticed a problematic trend prevalent in Hyderabad. There are very few places who are doing it at our level. There is a huge gap between demand and supply. We found a very favourable demographic there that people over there have the disposable income and want to try fitness activities. With plans of expanding into all the major cities of the country and foraying into multiple sports over the next one year, Fitso has their future chock-a-block with exciting ideas.

We can reach out to the interested people and engage them in fun activities that were not available until now. We feel that people at our day and age have to constantly have an active lifestyle otherwise there is no physical activity that you are required to do in your day to day life.

The perception towards sports and fitness awareness has changed and it has not been an overnight achievement. It has been a taboo to play after a certain age. The older mindset that we had of being a savings-oriented society and pushing people into work and education more, people are now free of that. They are now free to follow whatever interest they have.

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Sports are a point of immediate interest among the masses and we have, at some point in our life, dilly-dallied with the idea of taking it up, no matter how good or bad we are it. The excitement and joy that comes from sports is unparalleled and Fitso desires to tap into that emotion we experience. Being a pioneer organization the sports category currently, Fitso has made a niche position for itself in the field of swimming with their top-class facilities coupled with the availability of certified trainers and coaches to take care of the individual needs.

Over the last few years, people are more open and accepting to non-cricketing sports as well and are aware of the achievements there. This has created a positive and healthy atmosphere for the sports market and successfully attracted a wide variety of enthusiasts who are concerned about their fitness. With a user base that ranges from five to fifty, Fitso has achieved several milestones through the SEALs program. Then there are local competitions like Delhi Nationals and all where a few of our kids have also won golds. In the coming year, Fitso will branch out into new territories and their presence can be felt in all the major cities of the country and with that, they will be one step closer in realizing their dream of making a fit India and the difference will be made, in the guise of sports.

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However, as the country enters the Fitso Sports: Swimming into new territories, towards a fitter India Uncategorized Sohinee - September 27, Fitso, which set its wheels into motion in in the heartland of Delhi-NCR has now encompassed an impressive base of 12, regular subscribers. The Indonesia It acted as We are One-stop-media platform for Olympic sports content of India.

Read More. Maintained by, Accucia Softwares. The Bridge. Tokyo Summer Olympics Countdown. Why I race By Kunal Maini. I started running at Six years later, I have run…. Thank you, India…for allowing a beautiful friendship By Hayley Wickenheiser.

A mentor beyond measure: Indian para-athlete coach Satyapal Singh. Despite these caveats, some general patterns appear in the literature. Metal content tends to differ among phylogenetic groups, with brown algae typically possessing higher levels of most metals in comparison with red or green algal species Foster ; Munda and Hudnik ; Stengel and Dring ; Al-Masri et al. But there are exceptions. Phaneuf et al. These species-specific differences among algae from the same environment may reflect differing metabolic affinities for these metals.

Algal uptake of Cd, Cu, Co, Zn as well as Pb occurs via transporter-mediated processes, as indicated by their uptake kinetics e. As noted, however, colloidal sorption to algal surfaces can be a contributing factor, and there are few data on colloidal metal concentrations in coastal waters Wells Regardless, macroalgae clearly can be a vector for toxic metal transfer to humans, especially if harvested from contaminated habitats. Perez et al. They found a wide range of metal content between these species with Pyropia columbina being a stronger accumulator of As, Cd, Mo, and Se, while Ulva spp.

There also were significant seasonal variations in metal loading with Pyropia columbina having maximum Cd concentrations during winter while Ulva sp. This seasonality may result not only from metabolic controls but also oceanographic influences. It is unclear to what extent the presence of these metals could affect human health, as their bioavailability was not assessed. Metal accumulation will be influenced by both the geochemical conditions and also by metabolic control as a function of ecological growth strategies or seasonally determined productivity Stengel et al.

Schiener et al. Lawrence River estuary, Canada, all were at very low levels and there were no metal-related health risks Phaneuf et al.

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Similarly, a study of the metal content of seaweeds washed up on the Brazilian coast also showed that some toxic metals were at levels considered harmful, although with remediation of nearby industrial contamination sources these macroalgae represent a potential food alternative for humans de Oliveira et al.

In one of the more comprehensive recent analyses, Dawczynski et al. Turner et al. Only Cd displayed salinity-dependent uptake rates, with rates decreasing at higher salinity. There is thus potential for some metals to reach harmful concentrations in edible seaweeds, but there is no information on how bioaccessible or bioactive most algal metals are in human digestion. Worse, there is no consensus on a uniform or even optimal approach to quantify the bioavailability of metals.

Recent advances using bio-digestive reactor approaches e. Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic iAs: arsenite, As III , arsenate, As V leads to a higher incidence of several cancers including skin, lung, and urinary tract cancers. All seafoods contain arsenic, which enters cells through phosphate transporters and aquaglyceroporins Bhattacharjee et al.

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There are more than 50 arsenic species in seafood, but the absolute arsenic content of a seafood does not predict health risk because marine organisms have evolved detoxification strategies in which iAs is converted to methylated organic forms. Fish and crustaceans convert most iAs into arsenobetaine; humans excrete arsenobetaine, and it is not considered to be toxic Francesconi , Molin et al.

Algae, and mollusks that eat algae e. It is reassuring that fractionation studies show most macroalgae contain very little inorganic As in comparison to arsenosugars, although measurement of iAs in algae may be less reliable than in plants de la Calle et al. This difference might reflect either retention of As, or perhaps that they absorbed less arsenosugar from the digestive tract Raml et al.

Although most algae naturally synthesize arsenosugars from the iAs they take up from seawater, a few brown macroalgae contain a significant fraction of total As as iAs Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea : Hansen et al. The sea vegetable hijiki Sargassum fusiforme contains unusually high levels of iAs e. Nevertheless, there are at least three issues that bear upon As toxicity to humans: the chemical speciation of As in the food item, the bioaccessibility after cooking Devesa et al.


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Ichikawa et al. Nakamura et al. More research is needed on health risks from lower dose iAs intake following consumption of the few brown algae that store iAs. As Nakamura et al.

Inorganic As and arsenosugar content of hijiki varies geographically and with manufacturing method Shimoda et al. By estimating As bioaccessibility through the human GI tract using modifications of methods developed by nutritionists for estimating Fe uptake, Garcia-Sartal et al. More research is needed to understand how different cooking processes, the particular algal food matrix, and the gut microbiome modify arsenosugar bioaccessibility and then better definition of the interaction of other As species produced in the body with cellular metabolites and macromolecules before their excretion NRC ; Molin et al ; Carlin et al Experiments at all levels are important but it is particularly important to move beyond tests of toxicity using in vitro cell cultures in order to understand whether there is any risk of consuming any sea vegetable.

Less well-recognized toxic effects can arise from excess intake of sea salt minerals, such as bromine, which can cause nerve, DNA, and organ damage in mammals e. Bromine concentrations in the urine of human female subjects in China, Japan, and Korea have been shown to correlate with their seafood intake, with macroalgae apparently being a major source Kawai et al.

However, this correlation was skewed by the consumption of terrestrial crops treated with methyl bromide, which can significantly increase total bromine intake. It is an important reminder for the need to quantify total exposure of an individual to metal intake to evaluate the effects of algal consumption. Relatively little has been published on the subject of possible allergenicity of algae and their products.

A young man developed anaphylaxis after the first-time consumption of a spirulina tablet Le et al. Well-known episodes of human poisoning events have occurred after consumption of wild-harvested spirulina that contained Microcystis and other freshwater cyanobacteria that produce neurotoxins and hepatotoxins. This emphasizes the importance of developing large-scale, controlled cultivation and daily testing of future supplement crops e.

The amino acid kainic acid, which is found in dulse and some other red algae e. At high doses, kainic acid is neurotoxic and used experimentally to produce disease models in mice and other animals.

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Concentrations of kainic acid that damage neurons are much higher than those consumed by eating dulse, but Mouritsen et al. Another amino acid in the kainoid family is domoic acid DA , which is also found at low levels in some red algae e. DA is a strong health risk during blooms of a few diatoms e. Traditionally in both Europe and Asia, worms were eliminated from humans and animals with red algae that contain KA or DA Mouritsen Many Gracilaria Rhodophyta and Caulerpa Chlorophyta species are eaten as sea vegetables, especially in the western Pacific de Gaillande et al.

Wounding of G. Hammann et al. Their study characterized many additional metabolites present in G. Fatalities have resulted from consumption of fresh Gracilaria edulis Polycavernosa tsudai in Navarro et al. Navarro et al. The considerable breadth and depth of literature on algae as nutritional and functional foods frustrates attempts for a fully comprehensive assessment of the field. It is clear that there is substantial evidence for algae as nutritional and functional foods, yet there remain considerable challenges in quantifying these benefits, and in assessing potential adverse effects.


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The limits to our understanding fall broadly into three areas. First is the variation of nutritional and functional composition of algae across species, seasons, and different coastal environments.